The Protein Boost Diet References

Chapter One: The Role of Metabolism in Weight Gain
12 one-third of the adult population is obese: Katherine M. Flegal, PhD, Margaret D. Carroll, MSPH, et al., “Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among US Adults, 1999–2008,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 303, No. 3 (2010): 235–41.
12 more than half of all Americans are overweight or obese: Cynthia L. Ogden, PhD, and Margaret D. Carroll, MSPH, Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Among Adults: United States, Trends 1960–1962 Through 2007–2008, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 2010, 1–6.
12 twelve states reported more than 30 percent of their population as obese: Healthy Communities: What Local Governments Can Do to Reduce and Prevent Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1–95.
12 American adults spend more than $50 billion a year on weightloss efforts: Marion J. Franz, MS, RD, Jeffrey J. Van Wormer, MS, A. Lauren Crain, PhD, et al., “WeightLoss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and MetaAnalysis of WeightLoss Clinical Trials with a Minimum 1Year FollowUp,” Journal of the American Diabetic Association, Vol. 107, No. 10 (2007): 1755–67.
12 82 percent underestimating their actual weight: Tom Henderson, “Overweight Moms, Children Think They’re Thinner Than They Really Are, Study Shows,” ParentDish (2011).
12 you’re less likely to make the changes . . . overall health: Nicholas Murphy Edwards, MD, Sandra Pettingell, PhD, and Iris Wagman Borowsky, MD, PhD, “Where Perception Meets Reality: SelfPerception of Weight in Overweight Adolescents,” Official  Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 125, No. 3 (2010): 452–56.
13 Measurements greater than 35 inches in women . . .metabolic disorders such as diabetes: Ruth S.M. Chan and Jean Woo, “Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective Is the Current Public Health Approach,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 7 (2010): 765–83.
14 a fivefoot, nineinch man . . . 145 pounds is also considered overweight: “Calculate Your Body Mass Index,” www.NHLBI.nih.gov, nhlbisupport.com/bmi/.
14 [BMI] . . . doesn’t distinguish between the weight of muscle and the weight of fat: Hazel A. Hiza, PhD, RD, Charlotte Pratt, PhD, RD, Anne L. Mardis, MD, MPH, and Rajen Anand, PhD, “Body Mass Index and Health,” Nutrition Insights, Insight, Vol. 16 (2000).
14 Asians are in general 3.5 percent leaner than Caucasians . . . healthy range: Ruth S.M. Chan, and Jean Woo; “Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective Is the Current Public Health Approach,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 7, (2010): 765–83.

15 Women have two to three times the leptin of men: J. Westerbacka, A. Cornér, M. Tiikkainen, et al., “Women and Men Have SimilarAmounts of Liver and IntraAbdominal Fat, Despite More Subcutaneous Fat in Women: Implications for Sex Differences in Markers of Cardiovascular Risk,” Diabetologia, Vol. 47, No. 8: 1360–69.
15 You won’t lose fat at the same rate you’re losing weightloss
friendly leptin: Brad Pilon, MS, “Fasting and Leptin,” www.eatstopeat.com.
16 injecting overweight or obese people with leptin has proved ineffective for weight loss: Peter J. Havel, “Role of Adipose Tissue in BodyWeight Regulation: Mechanisms Regulating Leptin Production and Energy Balance,” Proceedings of the Nutritional Society, Vol. 59, No. 3 (2000): 359–71.
16 leptin treatment may prevent you from regaining the fat you’ve lost: Michael Rosenbaum, Rochelle Goldsmith, Daniel Bloomfield, et al., “LowDose Leptin Reverses Skeletal Muscle, Autonomic, and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Maintenance of Reduced Weight,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 115, Issue 12 (2005): 3579–86.

16 Highfat diets encourage leptin resistance . . . efficiency in the brain: B. Dziedzic, J. Szemraj, J. Bartkowiak, and A. Walczewska, “Various Dietary Fats Differentially Change the Gene Expression of Neuropeptides Involved in Body Weight Regulation in Rats,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 19, No. 5 (2007): 364–73.
16 [Ghrelin is] . . . produced primarily in your stomach, . . . brain, and testicles: Chrysanthia A. Leontiou, Giulia Franchi, and Márta Korbonits, “Ghrelin in Neuroendocrine Organs and Tumours,” Pituitary, Vol. 10, No. 3 (2007): 213–25.
16 High amounts of ghrelin . . . slow metabolism and make your body hold on to fat: David S. Weigle, David E. Cummings, et al., “Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Loss of Body Weight Caused by a Low Fat, High Carbohydrate Diet,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 88, No. 4 (2003): 1577–86.
17 Injecting lab rats and humans . . . food intake: A. M. Wren, C. J. Small, H. L. Ward, et al., “The Novel Hypothalamic Peptide Ghrelin Stimulates Food Intake and Growth Hormone Secretion,” Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 141, No. 11 (2000): 4325–28.
17 Ghrelin makes you feel hungry: A. M. Wren, C. J. Small, H. L. Ward, et al., “The Novel Hypothalamic Peptide Ghrelin Stimulates Food Intake and Growth Hormone Secretion,” Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 141, No. 11 (2000): 4325–28.
17 Obese people with noninsulindependent diabetes . . . diabetes medication: Walter J. Pories, “Bariatric Surgery: Risks and Rewards,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 11 (Suppl. 1) (2008): S89–S96.
17 benefits include lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels: Meena Shah, Vinaya Simha, and Abhimanyu Garg, “REVIEW: LongTerm Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Body Weight, Comorbidities, and Nutritional Status,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 91, Issue 11 (2006): 4223–31.
18 leptin promotes thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production: K.W. Nowak, P. Kaczmarek, P. Mackowiak, et al., “Rat Thyroid Gland Expresses the Long Form of Leptin Receptors, and Leptin Stimulates the Fuction of the Gland in Euthyroid NonFasted Animals,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 1 (2002): 31–34.
18 Without leptin . . . your body burns even less energy: T. ZimmermanBelsing, G. Brabant, J. J. Holst, and U. FeldtRasmussen, “Circulating Leptin and Thyroid Dysfunction,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 149, No. 4 (2003): 257–71.
18 leptin is the messenger . . . while thyroid hormone kicks up metabolic activity: G. Brenta, “Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction,” Journal of Thyroid Research, Vol. 2011, article ID 152850 (2011), doi:10.4061/2011/152850.
18 lowgrade hypothyroidism affects how well leptin works: U. FeldtRasmussen, “Thyroid and Leptin,” Thyroid, Vol. 17, No. 5 (2007): 413–20.
19 restoring thyroid hormone to correct levels causes ghrelin levels to drop: J. Kosowicz, A. BaumannAntczak, M. Ruchala, et al., “Thyroid Hormones Affect Plasma Ghrelin and Obestatin Levels,” Hormone and Metabolism Research, Vol. 43, No. 2 (2011): 121–25.
19 Thyroid hormone directly activates the heatburning of mitochondrial proteins: J. Y. Lee, N. Takahashi, M. Yasubuchi, et al., “Triiodothyronine Induces UCP1 Expression and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Human Adipocytes,” American Journal of Physiology Cell Physiology, Vol. 302, No. 2 (2012): C463–72.
23 adiponectin has multiple benefits: Christian Weyer, Tohru Funahashi, Sachiyo Tanaka, et al., “Hypoadiponectinemia in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Close Association with Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinemia,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 86, No. 5 (2001): 1930–35.
23 Low levels of adiponectin contribute to diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Mathias Fasshauer, Ralf Paschke, and Michael Stumvoll, “Adiponectin, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease,” Biochimie, Vol. 86, Issue 11 (2004): 779–84.
23 In an experiment on rats eating a highfat diet . . . their normal effectiveness: Kelly A. Posey, Deborah J. Clegg, Richard L. Printz, et al., “Hypothalamic Proinflammatory Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a HighFat
Diet,” American Journal of PhysiologyEndocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 296, No. 5 (2009): E1003–E1012.

24 Metabolic syndrome can ultimately lead . . . and stroke: Bo Isomaa, MD, Peter Almgren, MSC, Tiinamaija Tuomi, MD, et al., “Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 24, No. 4 (2001): 683–89.

24 High blood sugar from insulin resistance triggers your pancreas to release more insulin: Werner Stauffacher, Andre E. Lambert, Daniele Vecchio, and Albert E. Renold, “Measurements of Insulin Activities in Pancreas and Serum of Mice with Spontaneous Obesity and Hyperglycemia, with Considerations on the Pathogenesis of the Spontaneous Syndrome,” Diabetologia, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1967): 230–37.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Two: What Slowed Your Metabolism and Caused Your Weight Gain?

29 In a perfect world, the percentage of body fat we carry would be roughly the same for all people: R. S. M. Chan and J. Woo, “Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective Is the Current Public Health Approach,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 7 (2010): 765–83, doi:10.3390/ijerph7030765.
33 5 percent of childhood obesity is caused by major genetic defects: C. Bouchard, “Childhood Obesity: Are Genetic Differences Involved?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5 (2009): 1494S–1501S.
34 overweight mothers are more likely to have . . . than . . . mothers of normal weight: P. M. Catalano, “Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Pregnancy Outcome,” Reproduction, Vol. 140, No. 3 (2010): 365–71, doi:10.1530/REP100088.
34 uterine environment can modify the way a child’s genes will be expressed: M. J. R. Heerwagen, M. R. Miller, L. A. Barbour, and J.E. Friedman, “Maternal Obesity and Fetal Metabolic Programming: A Fertile Epigenetic Soil,” American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative, Vol. 299, No. 3 (2010), doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00310.2010.
34 two obese parents have an 80 percent chance of having obese children: R. Hellman, “Pediatric Obesity: Are We Ready to Pay the Piper?” Review of Endocrinology (July 2007). Web, accessed November 2011.
34 Your risk for being obese is five times greater . . . firstdegree relative: C. Bouchard. “Childhood Obesity: Are Genetic Differences Involved?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5 (2009): 1494S–501S.
34 Birth mothers with type 2 diabetes . . . place their offspring . . . in the child’s life: P. M. Catalano, “Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Pregnancy Outcome,” Reproduction, Vol. 140, No. 3 (2010): 365–371, doi: 10.1530/REP100088.
34 Twothirds of women . . . when they conceive: M. J. R. Heerwagen, M. R. Miller, L. A. Barbour, and J. E. Friedman, “Maternal Obesity and Fetal Metabolic Programming: A Fertile Epigenetic Soil,” American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative, Vol. 299, No. 3 (2010), doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00310.2010.
34 a woman eating a highfat diet . . . weight gain from birth: M. J. R. Heerwagen, M. R. Miller, L. A. Barbour, and J. E. Friedman. “Maternal Obesity and Fetal Metabolic Programming: A Fertile Epigenetic Soil,” American Journal of Physiology Regulatory,
Integrative and Comparative, Vol. 299, No. 3 (2010), doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00310.2010.
34 Weightpromoting genes . . . and medications: C. Bouchard. “Childhood Obesity: Are Genetic Differences Involved?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5 (2009): 1494S–501S.
35 Researchers call this “geneenvironment interaction”: C. Bouchard. “Childhood Obesity: Are Genetic Differences Involved?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5 (2009): 1494S–501S.
35 Growing up in a stressful environment often leads to weight problems in children: S. Garasky, S. D. Stewart, C. Gundersen, et al., “Family Stressors and Child Obesity,” Social Science Research, Vol. 38, No. 4 (2009): 755–66.
35 Animals subjected to stress . . . behavioral dysfunction: S. Uchida, K. Hara, A. Kobayashi, et al., “Early Life Stress Enhances Behavioral Vulnerability to Stress Through the Activation of REST4Mediated Gene Transcription in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Rodents,” Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 30, No. 45 (2010): 15007–18.

35 persistent high levels of the fatinducing stress hormone corticosterone: N. P. Daskalakis, S. E. Claessens, J. J. Laboyrie, et al., “Newborn Rat’s Stress System Readily Habituates to Repeated and Prolonged Maternal Separation, While Continuing to Respond to Stressors in Context Dependent Fashion,” Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 60, No. 2 (2011): 165–76.
35 obese children are more likely . . . later in adolescence: W. H. Dietz, “Health Consequencs of Obesity in Youth: Childhood Predictors of Adult Disease,” Pediatrics, Vol. 101, No. 3 (Suppl. 2) (1998): 518–25.
35 Overweight or obese young people are at greater risk of being overweight or obese adults: A. S. Singh, C. Mulder, J. W. R. Twisk, et al., “Tracking of Childhood Overweight into Adulthood: A Systematic Review of the Literature,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 5 (2008): 474–88, doi:10.1111/j.1467789X. 2008.00475.x.
37 endocrinedisrupting chemicals disturb . . . congenital hypothyroidism: N. E. Skakkebaek, J. Toppari, O. Soder, et al., “Exposure of Fetuses and Children to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: A European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) Call to Action Statement,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 10 (2011): 3056– 58.
37 hormone disruptors . . . circulate in your bloodstream: D. Melzer, and T. Galloway, “Bisphenol A and Adult Disease: Making Sense of Fragmentary Data and Competing Inferences,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 6 (2011): 392–94.

37 wrecking the function of hormones by attaching to cell membranes: N. E. Skakkebaek, J. Toppari, O. Soder, C. M. Gordon, S. Divall, and M. Draznin, “Exposure of Fetuses and Children to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: A European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) Call to Action Statement,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 10 (2011): 3056–58.
37 hormonedisrupting chemicals are also transferred . . . via breast milk: P. F. BaillieHamilton, “Chemical Toxins: Hypothesis to Explain the Global Obesity Epidemic,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2002): 185–92.
38 metabolic syndrome may originate even before birth: P. F. BaillieHamilton, “Chemical Toxins: Hypothesis to Explain the Global Obesity Epidemic,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2002): 185–92.
38 causes high cortisol levels and can cause metabolic setbacks and fat accumulation: F. Grun, H. Watanabe, Z. Zamanian, et al., “EndocrineDisrupting
Organotin Compounds Are Potent Inducers of Adipogenesis in Vertebrates,” Molecular Endocrinology, Vol. 20, No. 9 (2006): 2141–55.
38 TBT affects genes and makes you grow more fat cells: S. Kirchner, T. Kieu, C. Chow, et al., “Prenatal Exposure to the Environmental Obesogen Tributyltin Predisposes Multipotent Stem Cells to Become Adipocytes,” Molecular Endocrinology, Vol. 24, No. 3 (2010): 526–39.
38 low doses of BPA . . . can harm thyroid receptors and promote insulin resistance: G. Ning, T. Wang, M. Xu, et al., “Relationship of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration to Risk for Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Adults: A CrossSectional Analysis,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 6 (2011): 368–74.
39 Longterm exposure to pesticides . . . even diabetes: M. P. Montgomery, F. Kamel, T. M. Saldana, et al., “Incident Diabetes and Pesticide Exposure Among Licensed Pesticide Applicators: Agricultural Health Study, 1993–2003,” American Journal of
Epidemiology, Vol. 167, Issue 10 (2008): 1235–46.
39 Tetrachloroethylene. . . leading to weight gain: Egon Marth, “Metabolic Changes Following Oral Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene in Subtoxic Concentrations,” Archives of Toxicology, Vol. 60, No. 4 (1987): 293–99.
39 Researchers measured food samples . . . peanut butter: Arnold Schecter, Justin Colacino, Darrah Haffner, et al., “Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, TX, USA,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 118, Issue 6 (2010): 796–802.
40 Effects of PCB include lowered IQ, reduced visual recognition memory: Kelly J. Gauger, Yoshihisa Kato, Koichi Haraguchi, et al., “Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Exert Thyroid HormoneLike Effects in the Fetal Rat Brain but Do Not Bind to Thyroid Hormone Receptors,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 112, Issue 5 (2004): 516–23.
40 attention and motor deficits, reduced sperm count, . . . thyroid hormone T4: E. S. Goldley, L. S. Kehn, C. Lau, et al., “Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) Reduces Circulating Thyroid Hormone Concentrations and
Causes Hearing Deficits in Rats,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 135, Issue 1 (1995): 77–88.
40 [lithium encourages] low thyroid function: Karin Broberg, Gabriela Concha, Karin Engstrom, et al., “Lithium in Drinking Water and Thyroid Function,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 199, Issue 6 (2011): 827–30.
40 PFOAs alter fat metabolism, . . . metabolic changes in adulthood: G. B. Post, P. D. Cohn, and K. R. Cooper, “Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), an Emerging Drinking Water Contaminant: A Critical Review of Recent Literature,” Environmental Research, Vol. 116 (4 May 2012). Online at Epubmed, May 2012.
41 Phthalates are hormonedisrupting chemicals . . . and functions: S. Singh and S. S.L. Li, “Bisphenol A and Phthalates Exhibit Similar Toxicogenomics and Health Effects,” Gene, Vol. 494, No. 1 (2012): 85–91.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Three: Overcoming Thyroid and Growth Hormone Problems for Optimal Weight Loss

44 Low thyroid can cause a wide array of symptoms . . . panic attacks: DeFa Zhu, ZhaoXin Wang, DaRen Zhang, et al., “fMRI Revealed Neural Substrate for Reversible Working Memory Dysfunction in Subclinical Hypothyroidism,” Brain, Vol. 129, No. 11 (2006): 2923–30.
44–45 Hypothyroidism changes . . . making leptin inefficient: U. FeldtRasmussen, “Thyroid and Leptin,” Thyroid, Vol. 17, No. 5 (2007): 413–20.
45 Hypothyroidism will make you gain weight, . . . at risk for cardiovascular disease: Genevieve Rondeau, Nicole Rutamucero, Virginie Messier, et al., “Reference Range ThyroidStimulating Hormone Is Associated with Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MontrealOttawa New Emerging Team Study,” Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 59, No. 11 (2010) 1597–602.
47 Thyroid hormones directly regulate . . . burning calories at rest: Thomas Reinehr, “Obesity and Thyroid Function,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol. 316, Issue 2 (2010): 165–71.
47 calories you don’t burn by having . . . fifteen pounds a year: H. AlAdsani, L. J. Hoffer, and J. E. Silva, “Resting Energy Expenditure Is Sensitive to Small Dose Changes in Patients on Chronic Thyroid Hormone Replacement,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 82, No. 4 (1997): 1118–25.

48 treating low thyroid will help restore leptin sensitivity: P. F. S. Teixeira, MD, N. A. Cabral, D. V. Silva, et al., “Serum Leptin in Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Effect of Levothyroxine Treatment and Relationship to Menopausal Status and Body Composition,” Thyroid, Vol. 19, No. 5 (2009): 443–50.
48 In people with hypothyroidism, ghrelin levels are about onethird higher than normal: S. Gjedde, E. T. Vestergaard, L. C. Gormsen, et al., “Serum Ghrelin Levels Are Increased in Hypothyroid Patients and Become Normalized by LThyroxine Treatment,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 6 (2008): 2277–80.
48 If you have low thyroid levels, insulin sensitivity is reduced by roughly a third of what it should be: S. Gjedde, E. T. Vestergaard, L. C. Gormsen, et al., “Serum Ghrelin Levels Are Increased in Hypothyroid Patients and Become Normalized by Lthyroxine Treatment,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 93, No. 6 (2008): 227780.
48 treatment to restore hormone balance improves insulin sensitivity: I. Kowalska, J. Borawski, A. Nikolajuk, et al., “Insulin Sensitivity, Plasma Adiponectin and Sicam1 Concentrations in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Response to Levothyroxine Therapy,” Endocrine, Vol. 40, No. 1 (2011): 95–101.
48 low thyroid . . . can cause you to gain up to an extra onethird of your original weight: A. Herwig, A.W. Ross, K. N. Nilaweera, et al., “Hypothalamic Thyroid Hormone in Energy Balance Regulation,” Obesity Facts, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2008): 71–79.
49 For people who stop taking needed thyroid hormone, metabolism predictably slows down: M. C. Skarulis, F. S. Celi, E. Mueller, et al., “Thyroid Hormone Induced Brown Adipose Tissue and Amelioration of Diabetes in a Patient with Extreme Insulin Resistance,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 95, No. 1 (2010): 256–62.
49 Obesity decreases the number . . . thyroid hormone T4 to T3: HK. Park and R. S. Ahima, “Classical Hormones Linked to Obesity,” Metabolic Basis of Obesity (2011) 139–54, doi:10.1007/9781441916075_8.
49 about onefifth of obese people have hypothyroidism: M. A. Michalaki, A. G. Vagenakis, A. S. Leonardou, et al., “Thyroid Function in Humans with Morbid Obesity,” Thyroid, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006): 73–78.
49 people who have higher BMIs . . . made in the pituitary: Mehmet Bastemir, Fulya Akin, Esma Alkis, and Bunyamin Kaptanoglu, “Obesity Is Associated with Increased Serum TSH Level, Independent of Thyroid Function,” Swiss Medical Weekly, Vol. 137, 431–34.
50 leptin. . . regulates immune function . . . attack on your thyroid: Raffaella Faggioni, Kenneth R. Feingold, and Carl Grunfeld, “Leptin Regulation of the Immune Response and the Immunodeficiency of Malnutrition,” FASEB Journal, Vol. 15, No. 14 (2001): 2565–71.
50 Peripheral vascular disease . . . hypothyroidism in older people: Min Min Mya and Wilbert S. Aronow, “Increased Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Older Men and Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism,” Journal of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciiences and Medical Sciences, Vol. 58, No. 1 (2003): M68–M69.
53 Even in cases where TSH levels are clearly elevated: Martin Feldman, MD, and Gary Null, PhD, “Are You Tired? Low Thyroid May Be the Culprit: Part 1,” GaryNullForum.com, http://www.garynullforum.com/GNthisArticle.php?article=83.
53 Lowgrade hypothyroidism can definitely . . . even metabolic syndrome: Li Lu, Beibei Wang, Zhongyan Shan, et al., “The Correlation Between Thyrotropin and Dyslipidemia in a PopulationBased Study,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, Vol. 26, No. 2 (2011): 243–49.
53 people with metabolic syndrome have much higher TSH levels than healthy people: Y. Lai, J. Wang, F. Jiang, et al., “The Relationship Between Serum Thyrotropin and Components of Metabolic Syndrome,” Endocrine Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1 (2011): 23–30.
53 slightly high TSH correlates with a bigger waist circumference: Y. Lai, J. Wang, F.Jiang, et al., “The Relationship Between Serum Thyrotropin and Components of Metabolic Syndrome,” Endocrine Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1 (2011): 23–30.
55 Up to 50 percent of people taking lithium have lowgrade hypothyroidism: R. B. Khalil and S. Richa, “Thyroid Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs: A Review,” Clinical Neuropharmacology, Vol. 34, No. 6 (2011): 248–55.
56 soy consumption can produce lowgrade hypothyroidism . . . goiter . . . in babies: M. C. D. S. dos Santos, C. F. L. Goncalves, M. Vaisman, et al., “Impact of Flavonoids on Thyroid Function,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 49, No. 10 (2011): 2495–502.
56 risk escalating lowgrade hypothyroidism if. . . servings of soy per day: T. Sathyapalan, A. M. Manuchehri, N. J. Thatcher, et al., “Effect of Soy Phytoestrogen Supplementation on Thyroid Status and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Randomized, DoubleBlind, Crossover Study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 5 (2011): 1442–49.
56 haven’t seen a significant effect of soy on thyroid hormone in healthy people: N. D. Mittal, D. Hota, P. Dutta, et al., “Evaluation of Effect of Isoflavone on Thyroid Economy and Autoimmunity in Oophorectomised Women: A Randomised, DoubleBlind, PlaceboControlled Trial,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 133 (2011): 633–40.
56 soy does in fact have two proteins, . . . the manufacture of thyroid hormone: R. L. Divi, H. C. C. Chang, and D. Doerge, “AntiThyroid Isoflavones from Soybean: Isolation, Characterization, and Mechanisms of Action,” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 54, No. 10 (1997): 1087–96.

62 T3 treatment stimulates you to burn more fat and make your body generate more heat: J. Y. Lee, N. Takahashi, M. Yasubuchi, et al., “Triiodothyronine Induces UCP1 Expression and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Human Adipocytes,” American Journal of Physiology Cell Physiology, Vol. 302, No. 2 (2012): C463–72.
65 If you have hyperthyroidism, you may experience . . . up to 15 percent of your body weight: A. Herwig, A. W. Ross, K. N. Nilaweera, et al., “Hypothalamic Thyroid Hormone in Energy Balance Regulation,” Obesity Facts, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2008): 71–79.
65 As your body tries to cope . . . less sensitive to leptin and insulin: G. Brenta, “Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction,” Journal of Thyroid Research, Vol. 2011, article ID 152850 (2011), doi:10.4061/201/152850.
65 Excess thyroid hormone raises blood sugar and insulin…: N. Raboudi, R. Arem, R. H. Johnes, et al., “Fasting and Postabsorptive Hepatic Glucose and Insulin Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 256, No. 1 (Suppl. 1) (1989): E159–66.
65 Untreated hyperthyroidism can dangerously affect your heart: M. Peppa, G. Betsi, and G. Dimitriadis, “Lipid Abnormalities and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Overt and Subclinical Thyroid Disease,” Journal of Lipids, Vol. 2011, article ID 575840 (2011): 575840.
65–66 many women with overactive thyroid gain . . . with treatment: J. Daykin Dale, R. Holder, M. C. Sheppard, and J. A. Franklyn, “Weight Gain Following Treatment of Hyperthyroidism,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 55, No. 2 (2001): 233–39.
66 After the excess thyroid hormone is corrected, leptin levels remain low: Pedro Iglesias, Pilar Alvarez Fidalgo, Rosa Codoceo, and Juan J. Diez, “Serum Concentrations of Adipocytokines in Patients with Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Before and After Control of Thyroid Function,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 59, No. 5 (2003): 621–29.
67 people with growth hormone deficiency . . . tend to have far more abdominal fat than usual: Andrea F. Attanasio, Daojun Mo, Eva Marie Erfurth, et al., “Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Hypopituitary Growth Hormone (GH)–Deficient Patients Before and After GH Replacement,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 95, No. 1 (2010): 74–81.
67 GH deficiency . . . increases cardiovascular disease risk: Birgitta Bulow, Lars Hagmar, Zoli Mikoczy, et al., “Increased Cerebrovascular Mortality in Patients with Hypopituitarism,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 46, No. 1 (1997): 75–81.
67 GH deficiency symptoms in adults: George R. Merriam, MD, and Mark E. Molitch, MD, The Hormone Foundation’s Patient Guide to Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults, The Hormone Foundation (2006).
67 Sixtythree percent of patients with GH deficiency had obstructive sleep apnea: Y. Peker, J. Svensson, J. Hedner, et al., “Sleep Apnoea and Quality of Life in Growth Hormone (GH)–Deficient Adults Before and After 6 Months of GH Replacement Therapy,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 65, Issue 1 (2006): 98–105.
68 even lowgrade hypothyroidism can cause a GH deficit: Daniel M. Anderson, MD, MPH, Kimberly M. Rennie, MA, Richard S. Ziegler, PhD, et al., “Medical and Neurocognitive Late Effects Among Survivors of Childhood Central Nervous System Tumors,” Cancer, Vol. 92, No. 10 (2001): 2709–19.
68 about 35,000 adults . . . have [it], with approximately 6,000 newly diagnosed adults each year: “Growth Hormone Deficiency,” Burbank Compounding Pharmacy, http://www.burbankcompoundingpharmacy.com/growthhormone.html.
68 it’s far more common and can be found in one of 3,000 to 4,000 people: Vera Popovic, “GH Deficiency as the Most Common Pituitary Defect After TBI: Clinical Implications,” Pituitary, Vol. 8, Nos. 3–4 (2005): 239–43.
68 your pituitary will slow down . . . because you’re overweight or obese: M. Scacchi, A. Pincelli, and F. Cavagnini, “Growth Hormone in Obesity,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 23, No. 3 (1999): 260–71.
69 Autoimmune hypophysitis affects . . . clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction: N. Beressi, J. P. Beressi, R. Cohen, and E. Modigliani, “Lymphocytic Hypophysitis,” Annales de Medecine Interne, Vol. 150, No. 4 (1999): 327–41.
71 Twentyfive percent of people with traumatic brain injury will end up having GH deficiency: Mark E. Molitch, David R. Clemmons, Saul Malozowski, et al., “Evaluation and Treatment of Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline,” Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 6 (2011): 1587–1609.
71 serious head injury can impair . . . hypothalamus: V. Popovic, G. Aimaretti, F. F. Casanueva, and E. Ghigo, “Hypopituitarism Following Traumatic Brain Injury,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, Vol. 15, Issue 3 (2005): 177–84.
73 two years of GH treatment cut cardiovascular risk by about half: H. Schneider, J. Klotsche, H. Wittchen, et al., “Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Within the KIMS Survey on Estimated Cardiovascular Risk and Predictors of Risk Reduction in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 75, No. 6 (2011): 825–30.
73 Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone . . . lean body mass: DeFa Zhu, ZhaoXin Wang, DaRen Zhang, et al., “fMRI Revealed Neural Substrate for Reversible Working Memory Dysfunction in Subclinical Hypothyroidism,” Brain, Vol. 129, No. 11 (2006): 2923–30.

73 Once you’re treated . . . visceral fat around your waist: Howard B. A. Baum, MD, Beverly M. K. Biller, MD, Joel S. Finkelstein, MD, et al., “Effects of Physiologic Growth Hormone Therapy on Bone Density and Body Composition in Patients with AdultOnset Growth Hormone Deficiency,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 125, No. 11 (1996): 883–90.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Four: Managing Stress to Control Cravings and Fat Boosting Hormones

75 Top sources are money problems . . . housing costs: American Psychological Association, Stress in America survey (2011).
75 With repeated stress . . . too much cortisol is released: P. Anagnostis, V. G. Athyros, K. Tziomalos, et al., “Pathogenetic Role of Cortisol in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Hypothesis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 94, No. 8 (2009): 2692– 701.
76 feeling heavily stressed for just a couple of days results in central hypothyroidism: D. L. Helmreich and D. Tylee, “Thyroid Hormone Regulation by Stress and Behavioral Differences in Adult Male Rats,” Hormone and Behavior, Vol. 60, No. 3 (2011): 284–91.
77 the way you perceive stress . . . blood pressure rises or not: G. Oliver and J. Wardle, “Perceived Effects of Stress on Food Choice,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol.66, No. 3 (1999): 511–15.
77 stress is at the root of an extraordinary number of health conditions: K. L. K Tamashiro, M. A. Hegeman, and R. R. Sakai, “Chronic Social Stress in a Changing Dietary Environment,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 89, No. 4 (2006): 536–42.
77 Stress . . . leads you to eat fattening foods: K. L. K. Tamashiro, M. A. Hegeman, and R. R. Sakai, “Chronic Social Stress in a
Changing Dietary Environment,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 89, No. 4 (2006): 536–42.
77 instead of vegetables, meats, and fish: G. Oliver and J. Wardle, “Perceived Effects of Stress on Food Choice,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 66, No. 3 (1999): 511–15.
77 You eat when you’re stressed . . . feel better in some way: C. G. Greeno and R.R. Wing, “StressInduced Eating,” Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 115, No. 3 (1994): 444.
77 Stress makes you crave comfort foods that are high in fat, salt, and sugar: R.Rosmond, “Stress Induced Disturbances of the HPA Axis: A Pathway to Type 2 Diabetes?” Medical Science Monitor 9.2 (2003): RA35–39.
77 Cushing’s syndrome, in which . . . . stretch marks over the abdomen: L. K.Nieman, B. M. K. Biller, J. W. Findling, et al., “Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome: And Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol.93, No. 5 (2008): 1526–40.
80 executive control of emotions . . . “prefrontal cortical structures”: M. F. Dallman, “StressInduced Obesity and the Emotional Nervous System,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2009): 159–65.
80 cortisol affects neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine: M. F. Dallman, “StressInduced Obesity and the Emotional Nervous System,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2009): 159–65.
80 cortisol . . .affects dopamine levels in the nuclei accumbens: D. A. Zellner, S.Loaiza, Z. Gonzalez, et al., “Food Selection Changes Under Stress,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 87, No. 4 (2006): 789–93.
80 stressed, your brain generates . . . eating fattening foods: D. A. Zellner, S.Loaiza, Z. Gonzalez, et al., “Food Selection Changes Under Stress,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 87, No. 4 (2006): 789–93.
82 mindfulness, meditation, . . . eating response to stress: M. F. Dallman, “StressInduced Obesity and the Emotional Nervous System,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2009): 159–65.
83 getting fat itself can . . . stimulate the adrenal glands to release even more cortisol: P. Anagnostis, V. G. Athyros, K. Tziomalos, et al., “Pathogenetic Role of Cortisol in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Hypothesis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol.94, No. 8 (2009): 2692–701.
84–85 people who practiced tai chi for just twelve weeks experienced significant stress reduction: W. Y. Sun, M. Dosch, G. D.Gilmore, et al., “Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Program Among American Older Adults,” Educational Gerontology, Vol. 22, No. 2 (1996):161–67.
85 tai chi reduces inflammation: M. R. Irwin and R. Oldstead, “Mitigating Cellular Inflammation in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tai Chi Chih,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 20, No. 9 (2012): 764–72.
85 tai chi . . . boosts quality of life, motivation, vitality, social functioning, and overall mood: L. Zhang, C. Layne, T. Lowder, and J. Liu,
“Review Focused on Psychological Review of Tai Chi on Different Populations,” EvidenceBased Complementary Alternative Medicine, Vol. 2012, article ID 678107 (2012), doi:10.1155/2012/678107.
85 yoga ideal for gaining control over your food choices while you calm stress: T. Field, “Yoga Clinical Research Review,” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Vol. 17, No. 1 (2010): 1–8.
85 reduce anxiety and depression through its slow stretching and gently held poses: T. Field, “Yoga Clinical Research Review,” Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Vol. 17, No. 1 (2010): 1–8.

86 yoga’s effect on sleep disorders . . . improves sleep quality: S. R. Patel, “Reduced Sleep as an Obesity Risk Factor,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 2 (2009): 61–68.
87 Massage . . . raises levels of dopamine and serotonin: T. Field, M.HernandezReif,
M. Diego, et al., “Cortisol Decreases andSerotonin and Dopamine Increase Following Massage Therapy,” International Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 115, No. 10(2005):1397–1413.
89 obese women showed . . . group exercise and relaxation training: L. M. Hayward, A. C. Sullivan, and J. R. Libonati, “Group Exercise Reduces Depression in Obese Women Without Weight Loss,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 90, No. 1 (2000): 204–8.
89 [depression and weight problems] tend to feed . . . selfdestructive cycle: S. L. McElroy, R. Kotwal, S. Malhotra, et al., “Are Mood Disorders and Obesity Related? A Review for the Mental Health Professional,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 65, No. 5 (2004): 634–51.
90 cravings for sugars and fats . . . to boost mood and reduce anxiety: J.E. Morley, “Neueropeptide Regulation of Appetite and Weight,” Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 8, No. 3 (1987): 256–87.
90 healthy serotonin levels . . . speed up metabolism and make you burn calories: O. J. Marston, A. S. Garfield, and L. K. Heisler, “Role of Central Serotonin and Melanocortin Systems in the Control of Energy Balance,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 660, No. 1 (2011): 70–79.
90 link between the activity of brain serotonin and body weight: O. J. Marston, A. S. Garfield, and L. K. Heisler, “Role of Central Serotonin and Melanocortin Systems in the Control of Energy Balance,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 660, No. 1 (2011): 70–79.
90 Normal serotonin levels allow for . . . experiencing fullness: O. J. Marston, A. S. Garfield, and L. K. Heisler, “Role of Central Serotonin and Melanocortin Systems in the Control of Energy Balance,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 660, No. 1 (2011): 70–79.
90 Low or inefficient serotonin makes you crave junk foods and sweets to selfmedicate: O. J. Marston, A. S. Garfield, and L. K. Heisler, “Role of Central Serotonin and Melanocortin Systems in the Control of Energy Balance,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 660, No. 1 (2011): 70–79.
90 serotonin activity . . . a primer on neurotransmitters and depression: P. Anagnostis, V. G. Athyros, K. Tziomalos, et al., “Pathogenetic Role of Cortisol in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Hypothesis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 94, No. 8 (2009): 2692–701.
90 extra weight can result in chronic joint pain . . . are linked to depression: A. A. Farooqi, T. Farooqi, F. Panza, and V. Frisardi, “Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Neurological Disorders,” Cell and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol. 69, No. 5 (2011), doi:10.1007/s0001801108401.
90 in just one year many [obese adolescents] became depressed: E. Goodman and R. C. Whitaker, “A Prospective Study on the Role of Depression in the Development and Persistence of Adolescent Obesity,” Pediatrics, Vol. 110, No. 3 (2002) 497–504.
91 a weight disorder can lead to . . . weight gain and obesity: A. A. Farooqi, T. Farooqi, F. Panza, and V. Frisardi, “Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Neurological Disorders,” Cell and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol. 69, No. 5 (2011), doi: 10.1007/s0001801108401.
91 weight regain often occurs in people taking them: F. De Matos Feijo, M. C. Bertoluci, and C. Reis, “Serotonin and Hypothalamic Control of Hunger: A Review,” Review of Associated Medicine Brasil, Vol. 57, No. 1 (2011): 74–77.
91 exercise increases by twoto threefold growth . . . that regulates mood: C. Ernst, A. K. Olson, J. P. Pinel, et al., “Antidepressant Effect of Exercise: Evidence for an AdultNeurogenesis Hypothesis?” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2006): 84–92.
91 GABA supplements dramatically ameliorate metabolic syndrome: K. Ohara et al., “Oral Administration of yAminobutyric Acid and yOryzanol Prevents StressInduced Hypoadiponectinemia,” Phytomedicine, Vol. 18, Nos. 8–9 (2011): 655–60.
91–92 GABA deficiency can also lead to diabetes and fibromyalgia: Bjoem A. Menge et al., “Selective Amino Acid Deficiency in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes,” Regulatory Peptides, Vol. 160, Nos. 1–3 (2010): 75–80.
92 Raising GABA levels . . . produce more growth hormone: Bjoem A. Menge et al., “Selective Amino Acid Deficiency in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes,” Regulatory Peptides, Vol. 160, Nos. 1–3 (2010): 75–80.
92 Enhancing GABA levels will decrease your . . . brings a soothing effect: M. D. Foerster, R. Bradley, et al., “Reduced Insular GammaAminobutyric Acid in Fibromyalgia,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, Vol. 64, No. 2 (2011): 579–83.
93 Lactobacillus rhamnosus can directly affect . . . gut and brain: J. A. Bravo, P. Forsythe, M. V. Chew, et al., “Ingestion of Lactobacillus Strain Regulates Emotional Behavior and Central GABA Receptor Expression in a Mouse via the Vagus Nerve,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 38 (2011): 16050–55.
93 L. rhamnosus actually enhances GABA activity: J. A. Bravo, P. Forsythe, M. V. Chew, et al., “Ingestion of Lactobacillus Strain Regulates Emotional Behavior and Central GABA Receptor Expression in a Mouse via the Vagus Nerve,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 38 (2011): 16050–55.

93 People get dopamine bursts from . . . exercise, and gambling: G.J. Wang, N. D. Volkow, J. Logan, et al., “Brain Dopamine and Obesity,” Lancet, Vol. 357, No. 9253 (2001): 354–57.
94 when dopamine doesn’t work efficiently animals become obese: N. D. Volkow, G. J. Wang, J. S. Fowler, et al., “Brain DA D2 Receptors Predict Reinforcing Effects of Stimulants in Humans: Replication Study,” Synapse, Vol. 46, No. 2 (2002): 79–82.
94 overweight people have lower dopamine levels than their lean counterparts: GJ. Wang, N. D. Volkow, J. Logan, et al., “Brain Dopamine and Obesity,” Lancet Vol. 357, No. 9253 (2001): 354–57.
94 low dopamine levels or low . . . regulate eating behavior: E. Stice, S. Spoor, J. Ng, and D. H. Zald, “Relation of Obesity to Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 97, No. 5 (2009): 551–60.
95 Dopamine levels have a daily cycle: S. E. Doyle, M. S. Grace, W. McIvor, and M. Menaker, “Circadian Rhythms of Dopamine in Mouse Retina: The Role of Melatonin,” Visual Neuroscience, Vol. 19, No. 9 (2002): 593–601, doi:10.1017/S0952523802195058.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Five: Sleep Affects Your Hormones

98 interrupted sleep and shift work are significant contributors to obesity and diabetes: J. Arendt, “Shift Work: Coping with the Biological Clock,” Occupational Medicine, Vol. 60, No. 1 (2010): 10–20.

99 Melatonin . . . the pineal gland: D. Kunz, R. Mahlberg, C. Muller, et al., “Melatonin in Patients with Reduced REM Sleep Duration: Two Randomized Controlled Trials,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 89, No. 1 (2004): 128–34.
99 if a light pulse is shone . . . stop altogether within five minutes: H. W. Kork, C. Von Gall, and J. Stehle, “Circadian System and Melatonin: Lessons from Rats and Mice,” Chronobiology International, Vol. 20, No. 4 (2003): 697–710.
99 Melatonin helps you go to sleep . . . when it’s dark outside: M. J. Prasai, I. Pernicova, P. J. Grant, and E. M. Scott, “An Endocrinologist’s Guide to the Clock,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 4 (2011): 913–22.
99 melatonin damping down insulin levels during sleep: R. Robeva, G. Kirilov, A. Tomova, and P. Kumanov, “MelatoninInsulin Interactions in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome,” Journal of Pineal Research, Vol. 44, No. 1 (2008): 52–56.
103–104 cellular clock . . . runs on signals from body temperature, food consumption: W. Huang, K. M. Ramsey, B. Marcheva, and J. Bass, “Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Metabolism,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 121, No. 6 (2011): 2133–41.
104 cellular clock, through “clock genes” . . . needs to be burned: P. Lefebvre, G. Chinetti, J. C. Fruchart, and B. Staels, “Sorting Out the Roles of PPAR Alpha in Energy Metabolism and Vascular Homeostasis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 116, No. 3 (2006): 571–80.
104 Glucose (sugar) metabolism . . . is controlled . . . and your central circadian clock: W. Huang, K. M. Ramsey, B. Marcheva, and J. Bass, “Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Metabolism,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 121, No. 6 (2011): 2133–41.
104 [central circadian clock] causing you to produce more glucose at the beginning of the day: S. E. La Fleur, A. Kalsbeek, J. Wortel, et al., “A Daily Rhythm in Glucose Tolerance: A Role for the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus,” Diabetes, Vol. 50, No. 6 (2001): 1237–43.
104 cellular clock in your pancreas . . . to process the sugar: S. E. La Fleur, A. Kalsbeek, J. Wortel, et al., “A Daily Rhythm in Glucose Tolerance: A Role for the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus,” Diabetes, Vol. 50, No. 6 (2001): 1237–43.
104 removed a mouse’s cellular clockgene . . . glucose levels: F. W. Turek, C. Joshu, A. Kohsaka, et al., “Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Circadian Clock Mutant Mice,” Science, Vol. 308, No. 5724 (2005): 1043–45.
104 If your two clocks are misaligned . . . twelve hours after you wake: F. A. Scheer, M. F. Hilton, C. S. Mantzoros, and S. A. Shea, “Adverse Metabolic and Cardiovascular Consequences of Circadian Misalignment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the U.S.A., Vol. 106, No. 11 (2009): 4453–58.
105 circadian disruption and sleep restriction . . . metabolic rate by 8 percent: O. M. Buxton, S. W. Cain, S. P. O’Connor, et al., “Adverse Metabolic Consequences in Humans of Prolonged Sleep Restriction Combined with Circadian Disruption,” Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 129 (2012), doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003200.
105 mice that ate during sleeping hours . . . during regular waking hours: R. SalgadoDelgado, M. AngelesCastellanos, N. Saderi, et al., “Food Intake During the Normal Activity Phase Prevents Obesity and Circadian Desynchrony in a Rat Model of Night Work,” Endocrinology, Vol. 151, No. 3 (2010): 1019.
105–106 genetically obese mice fed exclusively . . . improvement in metabolism: T. Masaki et al., “Involvement of Hypothalamic Histamine H1 Receptor in the Regulation of Feeding Rhythm and Obesity,” Diabetes, Vol. 53, No. 9 (2004): 2250–60.
106 Mice fed highfat diets . . . clockgenes, and metabolisms: A. Kohsaka, A. D. Laposky, K. M. Ramsey, et al., “HighFat Diet Disrupts Behavioral and Molecular Circadian Rhythms in Mice,” Cell Metabolism, Vol. 6, No. 5 (2007): 414–21.
107 If you eat when you should be sleeping . . . you’ll gain more weight: M. J. Prasai, I. Pernicova, P. J. Grant, and E. M. Scott, “An Endocrinologist’s Guide to the Clock,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 4 (2011): 913–22.

107 Eating at night . . . inverts the twentyfourhour rhythm of blood sugar: W. Huang, K. M. Ramsey, B. Marcheva, and J. Bass, “Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Metabolism,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 121, No. 6 (2011): 2133–41.
107 Aligning your eating and sleeping patterns . . . maintaining weight: W. Huang, K. M. Ramsey, B. Marcheva, and J. Bass, “Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Metabolism,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 121, No. 6 (2011): 2133–41.
107 when the time of food presentation changes, . . . adjust to the new schedule: M. J. Prasai, I. Pernicova, P. J. Grant, and E. M. Scott, “An Endocrinologist’s Guide to the Clock,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology amd Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 4 (2011): 913–22.
109 Over the past half century there’s been a momentous decline in the time we spend sleeping: S. R. Patel, “Reduced Sleep as an Obesity Risk Factor,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 2 (2009): 61–68.
109 Many of us sleep fewer than six hours a night: E. Van Cauter and K. L. Knutson, “Sleep and the Epidemic of Obesity in Children and Adults,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 159, No. 1 (2008): S59–S66, doi:10.1530/EJE080298.
109 fewer than seven hours or more than nine hours a night can lead to weight gain and obesity: M. Watanabe, H. Kikuchi, K. Tanaka, and M. Takahashi, “Association of Short Sleep Duration with Weight Gain and Obesity at 1Year FollowUp: A LargeScale Prospective Study,” Sleep, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2010): 161–67.
112 With sleep deprivation or disturbed sleep, . . . slowing of your metabolism: E. Van Cauter and K. L. Knutson, “Sleep and the Epidemic of Obesity in Children and Adults,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 159, No. 1 (2008): S59–66, doi: 10.1530/EJE080298.
112 You also crave fats and sugars during the day as a result of higher levels of ghrelin: L. Brondel, M. A. Romer, P. M. Nougues, et al., “Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation Increases Food Intake in Healthy Men,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 91, No. 6 (2010): 1550–59, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28523.
113 your cortisol level later in the day . . . rises: A. Omisade, O. M. Buxton, and B. Rusak, “Impact of Acute Sleep Restriction on Cortisol and Leptin Levels in Young Women,” Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 99, No. 5 (2010): 651–56.
113 Cortisol draws fat to your waist . . . promotes insulin resistance: L. H. Opie, “Metabolic Syndrome,” Circulation, Vol. 115 (2007): e32–35.
113 Sleep deprivation makes your body release and activate more adrenaline and noradrenaline: C. Touma and S. Pannain, “Does Lack of Sleep Cause Diabetes?” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, Vol. 78, No. 8 (2011): 549–58.
113 Not sleeping enough escalates insulin resistance: C. Touma and S. Pannain, “Does Lack of Sleep Cause Diabetes?” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, Vol. 78, No. 8 (2011): 549–58.
113 Sleep deprivation also makes you produce less fatburning growth hormone: D. E. Watenpaugh, “Role of Sleep Dysfunction in Physical Inactivity and Its Relationship to Obesity,” Current Sports Medicine Reports, Vol. 8, No. 6 (2009): 331–38.
115 Disturbing noise such as a distant car alarm . . . can reduce how much REM sleep you get: P. Philip, R. Stoohs, and C. Guilleminault, “Sleep Fragmentation in Normals: A Model for Sleepiness Associated with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome,” Sleep, Vol. 17, No. 3 (1994): 242–47.
116 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, uncontrolled urination at night (enuresis), and depression in children: J. N. Roemmich, J. E. Barkley, L. D’Andrea, et al., “Increases in Overweight After Adenotonsillectomy in Overweight Children with Obstructive SleepDisordered Breathing Are Associated with Decreases in Motor Activity and Hyperactivity,” Pediatrics, Vol. 117, No. 2 (2006): e200–8, doi:10.1542/peds.20051007.
116 Insulin resistance and diabetes: P. Levy, M. R. Bonsignore, and J. Eckel, “Sleep, SleepDisordered Breathing and Metabolic Consequences,” European Respiratory Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2009): 243–60.
116 Sexual dysfunction in men: G. Pillar and N. Shehadeh, “Abdominal Fat and Sleep Apnea,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2008): S303–9.
117 High cortisol levels make leptin work poorly: E. Van Cauter and K. L. Knutson, “Sleep and the Epidemic of Obesity in Children and Adults,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 159, No. 1 (2008): S59–66, doi:10.1530/EJE080298.
117 when you have sleep apnea . . . sleepy during the day: G. Pillar and N. Shehadeh, “Abdominal Fat and Sleep Apnea,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2008): S303–9.
117 Leptin inefficiency and the burden of the inflammation . . . to become sluggish: A. G. De Sousa, C. Cercato, M. C. Mancini, and A. Halpern, “Obesity and Obstructive Sleep ApneaHypopnea Syndrome,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2008): 340–54, doi:10.1111/j.1467789X. 2008.00478.x.
118 32 percent of people who have disordered breathing during sleep have metabolic syndrome: F. J. Nieto, P. E. Peppard, and T. B. Young, “Sleep Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Syndrome,” Wisconsin Medical Journal, Vol. 108, No. 5 (2009): 263–65.
118 aging and gaining body fat make you more likely to have sleep apnea: M. Bruyneel, L. Ameye, and V. Ninane, “Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Young Cosmopolite Urban Adult Population: Risk Factors for Disease Severity,” Sleeping and Breathing, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2010): 543–48.

118 10 percent increase in body weight over four years increased the risk of sleep apnea sixfold: J. C. Lam and M. S. Ip, “An Update on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Metabolic Syndrome,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 6 (2007): 484–89.
118 More fat in the neck area . . . puts more pressure on the airway: G. Pillar and N. Shehadeh, “Abdominal Fat and Sleep Apnea,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2008): S303–9.
118 sleep will be further disturbed by waking when nicotine levels drop during sleep: M. Bruyneel, L. Ameye, and V. Ninane, “Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Young Cosmopolite Urban Adult Population: Risk Factors for Disease Severity,” Sleeping and Breathing, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2010): 543–48.
118 menopause. . . placing more pressure on the upper airways and slowing metabolism: F. J. Nieto, P. E. Peppard, and T. B. Young, “Sleep Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Syndrome,” Wisconsin Medical Journal, Vol. 108, No. 5 (2009): 263–65.
119 higher risk of sleep apnea if you have . . . PCOS, or insulin resistance: G. Pillar and N. Shehadeh, “Abdominal Fat and Sleep Apnea,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2008): S303–9.
119 sleep apnea if you gradually accumulate fat, . . . have become impaired: A. G. De Sousa, C. Cercato, M. C. Mancini, and A. Halpern, “Obesity and Obstructive Sleep ApneaHypopnea Syndrome,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2008): 340–54, doi:10.1111/j.1467789X. 2008.00478.x.
119 Oral appliances show . . . triglyceride levels: Bruce Jancin, “CPAP Alternatives Gaining Steam for Sleep Apnea,” Internal Medicine News (1 July 2010). Web, accessed November 2011.
119 Metformin . . . reduces insulin resistance: W. Ramadan, G. Dewasmes, M. Petitjean, et al., “Sleep Apnea Is Induced by a HighFat Diet and Reversed and Prevented by Metformin in NonObese Rats,” Obesity, Vol. 15, No. 6 (2007): 1409–18.
119 SSRI antidepressants . . . holding the upper airways open while you sleep: A. G. De Sousa, C. Cercato, M. C. Mancini, and A. Halpern, “Obesity and Obstructive Sleep ApneaHypopnea Syndrome,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2008): 340–54, doi:10.1111/j.1467789X. 2008.00478.x.
120 too much [melatonin] can lead to infertility or accelerate the course of Parkinson’s disease: D. Kunz, R. Mahlberg, C. Muller, et al., “Melatonin in Patients with Reduced REM Sleep Duration: Two Randomized Controlled Trials,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 89, No. 1 (2004): 128–34.
120 Evening exercise is followed by a drop . . . actually help you fall asleep: G. Copinschi, A. Nedeltcheva, R. Leproult, et al., “Sleep Disturbances, Daytime Sleepiness, and Quality of Life in Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Medicine, Vol. 95, No. 5 (2010): 2195–202.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Six: Balancing Estrogen and Testosterone Hormones to Lose Weight

122 PCOS . . . affects 6 to 10 percent of women of reproductive age: D. A. Ehrmann, “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 352, No. 12 (2005): 1223–36.
123 Thirty to 75 percent of women with PCOS become overweight or obese: H. Kahal, S. L. Atkin, and T. Sathyapalan, “Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 402052 (2011), doi:10.1155/2011/402052.
123 12 to 46 percent of women with PCOS also have metabolic syndrome: H. Teede, A. Deeks, and L. Moran, “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Complex Condition with Psychological, Reproductive and Metabolic Manifestations That Impacts on Health Across the Lifespan,” BioMed Central Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 41 (2010).
123 effects [of PCOS] on weight and metabolism will continue to haunt you after menopause: M. A. Birdsall and C. M. Farquhar, “Polycystic Ovaries in Pre and PostMenopausal Women,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 44, No. 3 (1996): 269–76.
123 losing as little as 10 percent of your body weight . . . chances of conception: H. Kahal, S. L. Atkin, and T. Sathyapalan, “Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 402052 (2011), doi:10.1155/2011/402052.
123 Women with PCOS who followed . . . with simple sugars: S. E. KasimKaraks, R. U. Almario, and W. Cunningham, “Effects of Protein Versus Simple Sugar Intake on Weight Loss in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (According to the National Institutes of Health Criteria),” Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 92, No. 1 (2009): 262–70.
124 Metformin, . . . helps restore normal periods: H. Kahal, S. L. Atkin, and T. Sathyapalan, “Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 402052 (2011), doi:10.1155/2011/402052.
124 oral contraceptive can also help . . . and high testosterone levels: D. A. Ehrmann. “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 352, No. 12 (2005): 1223–36.
124 Menopause is a normal part of aging . . . a few years later: K. SuttonTyrrell, X. Zhao, N. Santoro, et al., “Repreductive Hormones and Obesity: 9 Years of Observation from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 171, No. 11 (2010): 1203–13.
125 Women who go through menopause . . . chance of becoming severely obese: K. SuttonTyrrell, X. Zhao, N. Santoro, et al., “Repreductive Hormones and Obesity: 9 Years of Observation from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 171, No. 11 (2010): 1203–13.
125 losing weight will ease menopausal symptoms: A. J. Huang, L. L. Subak, R. Wing, et al., “An Intensive Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention and Hot Flushes in Women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 170, No. 13 (2010): 1161–70.
127 estrogen deficiency promotes leptin resistance: S. C. Chu, Y. C. Chou, J. Y. Liu, et al., “Fluctuation of Serum Leptin Level in Rats After Ovariectomy and the Influence of Estrogen Supplement,” Life Sciences, Vol. 64, No. 24 (1999): 2299–306.
127 normal levels of estrogen activate receptors . . . of (neuropeptideY): Q. Gao and T. L. Horvath, “CrossTalk Between Estrogen and Leptin Signaling in the Hypothalamus,” American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 294, No. 5 (2008): E817–26.
127 Poorquality nutrition in combination . . . eating a highquality diet: B. E. Millen, M. J. Pencina, R. W. Kimokoti, et al., “Nutritional Risk and the Metabolic Syndrome in Women: Opportunities for Preventive Intervention from the Framingham Nutrition Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 2 (2006): 434–41.
127 a diet rich in refined carbs . . . in women after menopause: NCEP Expert Panel on the Detection and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Adults, “Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III),” Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 285, No. 19 (2001): 2444–49.
127 at menopause women tend to have a shift in body fat from the buttocks and thighs to the abdomen: A. P. Tardivo, J. NahasNeto, E. A. P. Nahas, et al., “Associations Between Healthy Eating Patterns and Indicators of Metabolic Risk in Postmenopausal Women,” Nutrition Journal, Vol. 9, No. 64 (2010): 1–9.
128 redistribution of fat . . . metabolic syndrome, osteoarthritis, and diabetes: J. Zhou, L. J. Zhao, P. Watson, et al., “Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: Secondary Analysis for a LargeScale Placebo Controlled, DoubleBlind, 4Year Longitudinal Clinical Trial,” Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 7, No. 62 (2010): 1–9.
128 after menopause, cardiovascular disease becomes a major cause of death: D. A. Ehrmann, “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 352, No. 12 (2005): 1223–36.
128 frequency of hypothyroidism jumps to one in every eight women at menopause: R. Arem and D. Escalante, “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Significance,” Advances in Internal Medicine, Vol. 41 (1996): 213–50.
128 estrogen levels and estrogen receptors . . . the health of thyroid cells: A. P. Santin and T. W. Furlanetto, “Role of Estrogen in Thyroid Function and Growth Regulation,” Journal of Thyroid Research, Vol. 2011, article ID 875125 (2011), doi:10.4061/2011/875125.
131 75 to 80 percent of menopausal women experience classic symptoms: S. Palacios, “Advances in Hormone Replacement Therapy: Making the Menopause Manageable,” BioMed Central Women’s Health, Vol. 8, No. 22 (2008), doi:10.1186/14726874822.
131 taking HRT cuts your risk of coronary heart disease by nearly half: S. Palacios, “Advances in Hormone Replacement Therapy: Making the Menopause Manageable,” BioMed Central Women’s Health, Vol. 8, No. 22 (2008), doi:10.1186/14726874822.
131 healthy level of estrogen also enhances dopamine activity: M. Patlak, “Protecting the Aging Woman’s Brain,” Endocrine News (October 2011). Web, accessed December 2011.
132 estradiol improves insulin sensitivity and fat metabolism: B. Demir, E. Ozturkoglu, A. Solaroglu, et al., “Effects of Estrogen Therapy and Estrogen Combined with Different Androgenic Progestins on Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in OverweightObese Younger Postmenopausal Women,” Gynecological Endocrinology, Vol. 24, No. 6 (2008): 347–53.
132 estradiol boosts the weightloss helper leptin so it works more effectively: K. Kristensen, S. B. Pedersen, P. Vestergaard, et al., “Hormone Replacement Therapy Affects Body Composition and Leptin Differently in Obese and NonObese Postmenopausal Women,” Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 163 (1999): 52–62.
132 nondiabetic menopausal women . . . circumference and abdominal fat: S. R. Salpeter, J. M. E. Walsh, T. M. Ormiston, et al., “MetaAnalysis: Effect of HormoneReplacement Therapy on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Vol. 8, No. 5 (2006): 538–54.
132 HRTtaking women who were physically active . . . less physically active: S. Lara, G. Casanova, and P. M. Spritzer, “Influence of Habitual Physical Activity on Body Composition, Fat Distribution and Metabolic Variables in Early Postmenopausal Women Receiving Hormonal Therapy,” European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 150, No. 1 (2010): 52–56.
132 Women who’ve had a hysterectomy who take estrogen alone . . . and a progestin: B. Demir, E. Ozturkoglu, A. Solaroglu, et al., “Effects of Estrogen Therapy and Estrogen Combined with Different Androgenic Progestins on Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in OverweightObese Younger Postmenopausal Women,” Gynecological Endocrinology, Vol. 24, No. 6 (2008): 347–53.
133 taking an estrogen with a progestin . . . estrogen taken alone: H. Splete, “VTE Risk Lower with Transdermal Estrogen,” Internal Medicine News (15 October 2011). Web, accessed December 2011.
133 women taking Provera along with Premarin had an increased risk of dementia and stroke: M. Patlak, “Protecting the Aging Woman’s Brain,” Endocrine News (October 2011). Web, accessed December 2011.
134 Standard doses of estrogen . . . blood clots, and stroke: S. Palacios, “Advances in Hormone Replacement Therapy: Making the Menopause Manageable,” BioMed Central Women’s Health, Vol. 8, No. 22 (2008), doi:10.1186/14726874822.
134 low doses were as effective . . . as standard doses: W. H. Utian, D. Shoupe, G. Bachmann, et al., “Relief of Vasomotor Symptoms and Vaginal Atrophy with Lower Doses of Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Medroxyprogesterone Acetate,” Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 75, No. 6 (2001): 1065–79.
134 low doses of Premarin . . . improving health of blood vessel lining: G. Murcuro, C. Vitale, M. Fini, et al., “Lipid Profiles and Endothelial Function with LowDose Hormone Replacement Therapy in Postmenopausal Women at Risk for Coronary Artery Disease: A Randomized Trial,” International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 89, Nos. 2–3 (2003): 257–65.
135 did not address whether bioidentical hormones can cause harm: D. Moskowitz, “Comprehensive Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Bioidentical Hormones for the Management of Menopause and Related Health Risks,” Alternative Medicine Review, Vol. 11, No. 3 (2006): 208–23.
135 transdermal form of estradiol decreases your risk for venous thromboembolism by 30 percent: H. Splete, “VTE Risk Lower with Transdermal Estrogen,” Internal Medicine News (15 October 2011). Web, accessed December 2011.
136 the effect on weight was virtually the same: K. SuttonTyrrell, X. Zhao, N. Santoro, et al., “Repreductive Hormones and Obesity: 9 Years of Observation from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 171, No. 11 (2010): 1203–13.
136 taking hormones in your first menopausal years . . . fat metabolism: S. Lara, G. Casanova, and P. M. Spritzer, “Influence of Habitual Physical Activity on Body Composition, Fat Distribution and Metabolic Variables in Early Postmenopausal Women Receiving Hormonal Therapy,” European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Vol. 150, No. 1 (2010): 52–56.
136 rodents that received HRT . . . problemsolving tests: R. B. Gibbs, “LongTerm Treatment with Estrogen and Progesterone Enhances Acquisition of a Spatial Memory Task by Ovariectomized Aged Rats,” Neurobiology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1 (2000): 107–16.
136 Early treatment of menopausal rats with estradiol significantly enhanced cognitive tasks: A. L. Markowska and A. V. Savonenko, “Effectiveness of Estrogen Replacement in Restoration of Cognitive Function After LongTerm Estrogen Withdrawal in Aging Rats,” Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 22, No. 24 (2002): 10985–95.
136 Humans who have taken hormones . . . in the long run: R. B. Gibbs, “Estrogen Therapy and Cognition: A Review of the Cholinergic Hypothesis,” Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2010): 224–53.
137 plant estrogens don’t confer the same magnitude of protection as HRT on cognition: Y. N. Clement, I. Onakpoya, S. K. Hung, and E. Ernst, “Effects of Herbal and Dietary Supplements on Cognition in Menopause: A Systematic Review,” Maturitas, Vol. 68, No. 3 (2011): 256–63.
137 or hot flashes: R. BolanosDiaz, J. C. ZavalaGonzales, E. MezonesHolguin, and J. FranciaRomero, “Soy Extracts Versus Hormone Therapy for Reduction of Menopausal Hot Flushes: Indirect Comparison,” Menopause, Vol. 18, No. 7 (2011): 825–29.
137 plant isoflavones can help . . . relieve hot flash symptoms: M. D. Molla, J. J. HidalgoMora, and M. G. Soteras, “Phytotherapy as Alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy,” Frontiers in Bioscience, Vol. 3 (2011): 191–204.
137 Testosterone treatment . . . pleasure from intercourse, and frequency of sex: M. FeldhausDahir, “Testosterone for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Part II,” Urologic Nursing, Vol. 29, No. 5 (2009): 378, 386–89.
138 Testosterone patches . . . help with weight loss: C. Panzer and A. Guay, “Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Naturally and Surgically Menopausal Women,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2009): 8–18.
139 older overweight adults . . . decreased insulin resistance: D. T. Villareal and J. O. Holloszy, “Effect of DHEA on Abdominal Fat and Insulin Action in Elderly Women and Men,” Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 292, No. 18 (2004): 2243–48.
139 Low testosterone levels . . . affecting 50 percent of men over 60: M. H. EmmelotVonk, H. J. Verhaar, H. R. NakhaiPour, et al., “Low Testosterone Concentrations and the Symptoms of Testosterone Deficiency According to the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Males (ADAM) and Ageing Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale (AMS) Questionnaires,” Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 74, No. 4 (2011): 488–94.
139 Low testosterone also . . . and even diabetes: W. Y. Wu, J. F. Mao, S. Y. Lu, et al., “Testosterone Replacement Therapy Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Decreases High Sensitivity CReactive Protein Levels in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadal Young Male Patients,” Chinese Medical Journal, Vol. 122, No. 23 (2009): 2846–50.
139 insulin resistance caused by low testosterone can be reversed with testosterone replacement: B. B. Yeap, S. A. P. Chubb, Z. Hyde, et al., “Lower Serum Testosterone Is Independently Associated with Insulin Resistance in NonDiabetic Older Men: The Health in Men Study,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 161, No. 4 (2009): 591–98.
139 low testosterone, . . . and low HDL cholesterol: C. Reis, S. Liberman, A. C. Pompeo, et al., “Body Composition Alterations, Energy Expenditure and Fat Oxidation in Elderly Males Suffering from Prostate Cancer, Pre and Post Orchiectomy,” Clinics, Vol. 64, No. 8 (2009): 781–84.
139 the lower testosterone levels are . . . and waist circumference: B. A. Mohr, S. Bhasin, C. L. Link, et al., “Effect of Changes in Adiposity on Testosterone Levels in Older Men: Longitudinal Results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 155, No. 3 (2006): 443–52.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Seven: The Protein Boost Diet Foods That Reset Your Hormones and Boost Metabolism

144 Statistics show that . . . within one to two years: A. G. Tsai and T. A. Wadden, “Systematic Review: An Evaluation of Major Commercial Weight Loss Programs in the United States,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 142, No. 1 (2005): 56–66.
145 Mediterranean diet is far closer to the way our ancestors ate: J. M. Ordovas, J. Kaput, and D. Corella, “Nutrition in the Genomics Era: Cardiovascular Disease Risk and the Mediterranean Diet,” Nutrition Magazine, Vol. 51, No. 10 (2007): 1293–99.
145 A moderate amount of wine is enjoyed with meals: Mayo Clinic Staff, “Mediterranean Diet: Choose This HeartHealthy Diet Option,” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER) (2010): 1–2.
145 general principals can . . . reduce your cardiovascular risk: Faustino R. PerezLopez, Peter Chedraui, Javier Haya, and Jose L. Cuadros, “Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Longevity and AgeRelated Morbid Conditions,” Maturitas, Vol. 64, Issue 2 (2009): 67–79.
145 reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and neurodegenerative disorders: Katherine Esposito, MD, Raffaele Marfella, MD, PhD, Miryam Ciotola, MD, et al., “Effect of a MediterraneanStyle Diet on Endothelial Dysfunctino and Markers of Vascular Inflammation in the Metabolic Syndrome,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292, No. 12 (2004): 1440–46.
145 includes high amounts of . . . and low amounts of unhealthful saturated and trans fats: Ramon Estruch, MD, PhD, Miguel Angel MartinezGonzales, MD, PhD, Dolores Corella, PhD, et al., “Effects of a MediterraneanStyle Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 145, No. 1 (2006): 1–12.
145 the Proteinrich Oriental Diet (the PRO diet): N. S. Joo, Y. W. Park, K. H. Park et al., “Application of ProteinRich Oriental Diet in a CommunityBased Obesity Control Program,” Yonsei Medical Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2 (2011): 249–56.
147 moodboosting food selections . . . serotonin, and dopamine: Patrick Holford, BSc, “Depression: the Nutrition Connection,” Primary Care Mental Health, Vol. 1 (2003): 9–16.
149 Eating protein makes you feel full: Rita de Cassia Goncalves Alfenas, Josefina Bressan, and Aline Cardoso de Paiva, “Effects of Protein Quality of Appetite and Energy Metabolism in Normal Weight Subjects,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia and Metabologia, Vol. 54, No. 1 (2010): 45–51.
149 the dairy protein whey . . . the release of cholecystokinin: D. Joe Millward, Donald K. Layman, Daniel Tome, and Gertjan Schaafsma, “Protein Quality Assessment: Impact of Expanding Understanding of Protein and Amino Acid Needs for Optimal Health,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 87, No. 5 (2008): 1576S–81S.
149 casein. . . a cutback in your body’s release of the potent hunger hormone ghrelin: D. Joe Millward, Donald K. Layman, Daniel Tome, and Gertjan Schaafsma, “Protein Quality Assessment: Impact of Expanding Understanding of Protein and Amino Acid Needs for Optimal Health,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 87, No. 5 (2008): 1576S–81S.
149 fish induces more satiety than beef or chicken: Anthony M. Uhe, Greg R. Collier, and Kerin O’Dea, “A Comparison of the Effects of Beef, Chicken, and Fish Protein on Satiety and Amino Acid Profiles in Lean Male Subjects,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 122, No. 3 (1992): 467–72.
149 better satiety from casein, more calories burned from so, and improved fat burn from whey: Anthony M. Uhe, Greg R. Collier, and Kerin O’Dea, “A Comparison of the Effects of Beef, Chicken, and Fish Protein on Satiety and Amino Acid Profiles in Lean Male Subjects,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 122, No. 3 (1992): 467–72.
150 BCAAs, the queens of weightloss aminos: Yiying Zhang, Kaiying Guo, Robert E. LeBlanc, et al., “Increasing Dietary Leucine Intake Reduced DietInduced Obesity and Improves Glucose and Cholestrol Metabolism in Mice via Multimechanisms,” Diabetes, Vol. 56, No. 6 (2007): 1647–54.
150 eating more BCAA was linked . . . East Asian and Western adults: LiQiang Qin, Pengcheng Xun, Deborah Bujnowski, et al., and INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group, “Higher BranchedChain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese in MiddleAged East Asian and Western Adults,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 14, No. 2 (2010): 249–54.
150 Lysine reduces anxiety and calms stress . . . regulates production of . . . cortisol and reduces overactivity of serotonin receptors . . . helps leptin do a more efficient job: Donald K. Layman, “The Role of Leucine in Weight Loss Diets and Glucose Homeostasis,” American Society for Nutritional Sciences, Vol. 133, No. 1 (2003): 261S–67S.
150 methionine supplements . . . storing it in the liver: Eric P. Plaisance et al., “Dietary Methionine Restriction Increases Fat Oxidation in Obese Adults with Metabolic Syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 5 (2011): 836–40.
150 boosts the effect of thyroid hormone: L. B. Carew, J. P. McMurtry, and F. A. Alster, “Effects of Methionine Deficiencies on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, InsulinLike Growth FactorsI and II, Liver and Body Weights, and Feed Intake in Growing Chickens,” Poultry Science Association, Vol. 82, No. 12 (2003): 1932–38.
154 Soybeans’ protein content ranges from 36 to 56 percent: Kiyoharu Takamatsu, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Ichiro Matsumoto, and Keiko Abe, “Soy Protein Functionality and Mutrigenomic Analysis,” Bio Factors, Vol. 21 (2004): 49–53.
154 it’s soy’s specific amino acid composition that has the most influence on metabolism: Nimbe Torres, Ivan TorreVillalvazo, and Armando R. Tovar, “Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Soy Protein and Its Implication in Diseases Mediated by Lipid Disorders,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 6 (2006): 365–73.
155 hippopotamus . . . have ample fat tissue: Gary Taubes, Good Calories, Bad Calories (New York: Knopf, 2007). 157 Fiber also suppresses appetite: Grethe Støa Birketvedt, Mona Shimshi, Erling Thom, and Jon Florholmen, “Experiences with Three Different Fiber Supplements in Weight Reduction,” Medical Science Monitor, Vol. 11, Issue 1 (2005): PI5–8.
157 people of normal weight ate significantly more fiber than obese people: M. A. Alfieri, J. Pomerleau, D. M. Grace, and L. Anderson, “Fiber Intake of Normal Weight, Moderately Obese and Severely Obese Subjects,” Obesity Research, Vol. 3, No. 6 (1995): 541–47.
157 highfiber diet decreases blood sugar . . . involved in metabolic syndrome: James W. Anderson, Pat Baird, Richard H. Davis Jr., et al., “Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 67, Issue 4 (2009): 188–205.
159 Rats or mice fed a fructoseenriched . . . through their intestines: Christopher P. Corpe, Floris J. Bovelander, Christina M. Munoz, et al., “Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Mouse Fructose Transporter, GLUT5,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)— Gene Structure and Expression, Vol. 1576, Issues 1–2 (2002): 191–97.
160 diet soda drinkers’ waistlines expanded a stunning 70 percent more: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301504763_ 1622007535810391704/ newstudyiswakeupcallfordietsodadrinkers/.
161 lactose in milk helps with weight loss: M. B. Zemel, D. Teegarden, M. Van Loan, et al., “DairyRich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an EnergyRestricted Diet: A MultiCenter Trial,” Nutrients, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2009): 83–100.
161 National Dairy Council supports this claim: National Dairy Council, “Research Summary: Dairy and Healthy Weight,” http://www.nationaldairycouncil.org/Research/ResearchSummaries/Pages/DairyandHealthyWeightResearchSummary.aspx (2011).
161 25 to 35 percent total fat intake is appropriate for a healthy diet: Alice H. Lichtenstein, DSc, FAHA, Lawrence J. Appel, MD, FAHA, Michael Brands, PhD, FAHA, et al., “Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Revision 2006,” Circulation, Vol. 114 (2006): 82– 96.
161 as low as 15 percent total fat intake for overweight people: Stanley Feld, MD, FACP, MACE, “The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: The AACE System of Intensive Diabetes SelfManagement— 2002 Update,” Endocrine Practice, Vol. 8 (Suppl. 1) (2002): 40–82.
162 too much animal fat in your diet . . . your brain and muscles: M. Roden, T. B. Price, G. Perseghin, et al., “Mechanism of Free Fatty Acid–Induced Insulin Resistance in Humans,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 97, No. 12 (1996): 2859–65.
162 brain inflammation caused by toxic fats can compromise your cognitive capacity: A. SanchezVillegas, E. Toledo, J. de Irala, et al., “FastFood and Commercial Baked Goods Consumption and the Risk of Depression,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 15, No. 3 (11 August 2011), doi:10.1017/S1368980011001856.
162 Eating too much saturated fat . . . will make you want to eat more: B. Dziedzic, J. Szemraj, J. Bartkowiak, and A. Walczewska, “Various Dietary Fats Differentially Change the Gene Expression of Neuropeptides Involved in Body Weight Regulation in Rats,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 19, No. 5 (2007): 364–73.
162 some diet plans believe . . . “cancel out” the disadvantage of palmitic acid: A. H. Lichtenstein, L. J. Appel, M. Brands, et al., “Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Revision 2006,” Circulation, Vol. 114 (2006), 82–96.
163 Polyunsaturated fats . . . reduce cardiovascular disease: Ursel Wahrburg, “What Are the Health Effects of Fat,” European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 43 (Suppl. 1) (2004): 1103–9.
164 omega3s also . . . overall risk of cardiovascular disease: Eric J. Chan, MD, and Leslie Cho, MD, “What Can We Expect from Omega3 Fatty Acids?” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, Vol. 76, No. 4 (2009): 245–51.
164 Omega3s reduce appetite and make you burn fat more efficiently: Dolores Parra, Alfons Ramel, Narcisa Bandarra, et al., “A Diet Rich in Long Chain Omega3 Fatty Acids Modulates Satiety in Overweight and Obese Volunteers During Weight Loss,” Appetite, Vol. 51, No. 3 (2008): 676–80.
164 Omega3s lower triglyceride levels and fat stores while increasing oxygen consumption: Martin Rossmeisl, Tomas Jelenik, Zuzana Jilkova, et al., “Prevention and Reversal of Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in Mice by DHA Derivatives,” Obesity, Vol. 17, No. 5 (2009): 1023–31.
165 mediumchain fatty acids . . . rather than stored as fat: Bruce Fife, ND, “Coconut Oil and MediumChain Triglycerides,” Coconut Research Center (2003), http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/article10612.htm.
165 same number of calories from MCFAs . . . gain much less weight: MariePierre St. Onge and Peter J. H. Jones, “Physiological Effects of MediumChain Triglycerides: Potential Agents in the Prevention of Obesity,” American Society for Nutritional Services, Vol. 132, No. 5 (2002) 329–32.
165 taking coconut oil as a supplement decreases waist size: Monica L. Assuncao, Haroldo S. Ferreira, Aldenir F. dos Santos, et al., “Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil on the Biochemical and Anthropometric Profiles of Women Presenting Abdominal Obesity,” Lipids, Vol. 44, No. 7 (2009): 593–601.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Eight: Detox Your Metabolism

166 alter levels and/or efficiency of weightcontrolling hormones: R. Thomas Zoeller, Amy L. S. Dowling, and Anna A. Vas, “Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinates Biphenyls Exerts Thyroid HormoneLike Effects on the Expression of RC3/Neurogranin and Myelin Basic Protein Messenger Ribonucleic Acids in the Developing Rat Brain,” Endocrinology, Vol. 141, Issue 1 (2000): 181– 89.
166 Toxins also alter the function of neurotransmitters: Shoichi Yamagishi, Diane Edelstein, Xueliang Du, et al., “Leptin Induces Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 Expression in Aortic Endothelial Cells by Increasing Fatty Acid Oxidation via Protein Kinase A,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 276, No. 27 (2001): 25096–100.
169 Allergic reactions to food affect 3 to 4 percent of adults: http://www.foodallergy.org/files/FoodAllergyFactsandStatistics.pdf.
170 levels of antibodies to food components . . . higher in obese children: M. WildersTruschnig, H. Mangge, C. Lieners, et al., “IgG Antibodies Against Food Antigens Are Correlated with Inflammation and Intima Media Thickness in Obese Juveniles,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, Vol. 116, No. 4 (2008): 241–45.
170 Celiac disease affects just 1 percent . . . European ancestry: “Celiac Disease—Sprue,” A.D.A.M. Encyclopedia (2010).
171 often occurs in people who have chronic sinusitis: Ray C. Wunderlich Jr., MD, The CandidaYeast Syndrome (1997).
171 antibiotics enter your system . . . in the foods you eat: Hugh Galbraith, “Hormones in International Meat Production: Biological, Sociological and Consumer Issues,” Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 15, Issue 2 (2002): 293–314.
171 Women who take oral contraceptives . . . yeast overgrowth: Ann M. Geiger and Betsy Foxman, “Risk Factors for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A CaseControl Study Among University Students,” Epidemiology, Vol. 7, Issue 2 (1996): 182–87.
172 presence of these bacteria can actually cause you to absorb more calories: Alexander Goho, “Our Microbes. Ourselves: How Bacterial Communities in the Body Influence Human Health,” Science News, Vol. 171, Issue 20 (2007): 314–16.
172 bad bacteria and depletion . . . your GI tract and body: Erika C. Claud, MD, and Allan W. Walker, MD, “Bacterial Colonization, Probiotics, and Necrotizing Enterocolitis,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 42 (Suppl. 2) (2008): S46–52.
175 effects of organic foods and nonorganic foods are not clinically significant: Crystal SmithSpangler, MD, MS, Margaret L. Brandeau, PhD, Grace E. Hunter, BA, et al., “Are Organic Foods Safer or Healthier Than Conventional Alternatives? A Systematic Review,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 157, No. 5 (2012): 348–66.
177 Oxidative stress is the sum . . . fats and carbohydrates: B. Halliwell, “Oxygen Radicals: a Common Sense Look at Their Nature and Medical Importance,” Medical Biology, Vol. 62, No. 2 (1984): 71–77.
177 Alcohol, medications, too much radiation . . . toward oxidative stress: M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, et al., “Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Normal Physiological Functions and Human Disease,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2007): 44–84.
177 Smog, cigarette smoke, and industrial . . . oxidative stress: B. Halliwell, “The Wanderings of Free Radicals,” Free Radicals Biological Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 5 (2009): 531–42.
178 damages organs . . . leads to accelerated aging and cancer, heart disease: K. Sworczak and P. Wisniewski, “Role of Vitamins in the Prevention and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders,” Polish Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 62, No. 4 (2011): 341–44.
178 infertility: K. Tremellen, “Oxidative Stress and Male Infertility—A Clinical Perspective,” Human Reproduction Update, Vol. 14, No. 3 (2008): 243–58.
178 Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, kidney disease, nerve damage, and cataracts: G. Misciagna, G. De Michele, and M. Trevisan, “Non Enzymatic Glycated Proteins in the Blood and Cardiovascular Disease,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, Vol. 13, No. 36 (2007): 3688–95.
178 need antioxidants . . . and trace elements: M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, et al., “Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Normal Physiological Functions and Human Disease,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2007): 44–84.
179 (ALA)enhances Lglutathione’s ability . . . and insulin resistance: H. Ansar, Z. Mazloom, F. Kazemi, and N. Hejazi, “Effect of AlphaLipoic Acid on Blood Glucose, Insulin Resistance and Glutathione Peroxidase of Type 2 Diabetic Patients,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 6 (2011): 584–88.
179 Chromium supplements in the form . . . levels, and HDL: S. V. Vladeva, D. D. Terzieva, and D. T. Arabadjiiska, “Effects of Chromium on the Insulin Resistance of Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus,” Folia Medica, Vol. 47, Nos. 3–4 (2005): 59–62.
179 obese men taking chromium . . . who didn’t take it: M. C. Nachtigal, R. E. Patterson, K. L. Stratton, et al., “Dietary Supplements and Weight Control in a MiddleAged Population,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 5 (2005): 909– 15.
179 Niacinbound chromium reduces fat by . . . breakdown of sugars: F. C. Lau, M. Bagchi, C. Sen, et al., “Nutrigenomic Analysis of DietGene Interactions on Functional Supplements for Weight Management,” Current Genomics, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2008): 239–51.
179 too much chromium can up your risk of muscle breakdown and kidney failure: D. W. Lamson and S. M. Plaza, “Safety and Efficacy of HighDose Chromium,” Alternative Medicine Review, Vol. 7, No. 3 (2002): 218–35.
180 Deficiency is linked to lower production . . . thyroid enlargement (goiter): K. Sworczak and P. Wisniewski, “Role of Vitamins in the Prevention and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders,” Polish Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 62, No. 4 (2011): 340–44.
180 Deficiency for just six days can bring on impaired cognitive function: Stephanie McClellan, Beth Hamilton, and Diane Reverand, So Stressed (Tampa, FL: Free Press, 2009).
181 Vitamin C . . . your response to stress: Stephanie McClellan, Beth Hamilton, and Diane Reverand, So Stressed (Tampa, FL: Free Press, 2009).
181 increase fat burn by 30 percent: Carol S. Johnston, “Strategies for Healthy Weight Loss: from Vitamin C to the Glycemic Response,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 24, No. 3 (2005): 158–65.
181 supports good brain function, . . . transforming dopamine to norepinephrine: W. B. Alshuaib and M. V. Mathew, “Vitamins C and E Modulate Neuronal Potassium Currents,” Journal of Membrane Biology, Vol. 210, No. 3 (2006): 193–98.
181 vitamin E supplements can protect . . . dementia in older adults: A. Cherubini, A. Martin, C. AndresLacueva, et al., “Vitamin E Levels, Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Older Person: The InCHIANTI Study,” Neurobiology and Aging, Vol. 26, No. 7 (2005): 987–94.
182 Thyroid hormones need enough selenium to convert T4 to T3: M. J. Berry and P. R. Larsen, “Role of Selenium in Thyroid Hormone Actions,” Endocrine Reviews, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1992): 207–19.
182 zinc also helps prevent autoimmune disease and infection: J. F. Bach, “MultiFaceted Zinc Dependency of the Immune System,” Immunology Today, Vol. 2, No. 11 (1981): 225–27.
182 People with major depression also tend to have low zinc levels: C. W. Levenson, “Zinc: The New Antidepressant?” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 64, No. 1 (2006): 39–42.
184 Ltheanine also relaxes . . . enhances performance on highlevel cognitive tasks: A. C. Nobre, A. Rao, and G. N. Owen, “LTheanine, a Natural Constituent in Tea, and Its Effect on Mental State,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 17, No. 1 (2008): 167–68.
184 grapeseed extract increases insulin sensitivity: A. Meeprom, W. Sompong, W. Suwannaphet, et al., “Grape Seed Extract Supplementation Prevents HighFructose DietInduced Insulin Resistance in Rats by Improving Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling Pathways,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 106, No. 8 (2011): 1173–81.
184 alleviated inammation and oxidative stress: W. Suwannaphet, A. Meeprom, S. YibchokAnun, and S. Adisakwattana, “Preventive Effect of Grape Seed Extract Against HighFructose DietInduced Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 48, No. 7 (2010): 1853–57.
185 EGCG has been shown . . . symptoms of metabolic syndrome: Y. K. Chen, C. Cheung, K. R. Reuhl, et al., “Effects of Green Tea Polyphenol () Epigallocatechin3gallate on a Newly Developed HighFat/ WesternStyle DietInduced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 21 (2011), doi:10.1021/jf2029016.
185 people who took decaffeinated . . . a placebo gained: A. L. Brown, J. Lane, C. Holyoak, et al., “Health Effects of Green Tea Catechins in Overweight and Obese Men: A Randomized Controlled CrossOver Trial,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 106, No. 12 (2011), doi:10.1017/S0007114511002376.
185 green tea benefits insulin sensitivity: I. HiningerFavier, R. Benaraba, S. Coves, et al., “Green Tea Extract Decreases Oxidative Stress and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in an Animal Model of Insulin Resistance, the FructoseFed Rat,” Journal of American College of Nutrition, Vol. 28, No. 4 (2009): 355–61.
185 lemon verbena infusion . . . double the free radical–scavenging power: L. Funes, S. FernándezArroyo, O. Laporta, et al., “Correlation Between Plasma Antioxidant Capacity and Verbascoside Levels in Rats After Oral Administration of Lemon Verbena Extract,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 117, No. 4 (2009): 589–98.
186 berberine . . . enhancing insulin sensitivity and preventing fat accumulation: Jun Yin, Hanjie Zhang, and Jianping Ye, “Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome,” Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2008): 99–111.
186 Hot peppers and chiles help metabolize fat: M. S. Lee, C. T. Kim, I. H. Kim, and Y. Kim, “Effects of Capsaicin on Lipid Catabolism in 3T3L1 Adipocytes,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 25, No. 6 (2011): 935–39.
187 Curcumin . . . acts a stimulant: Bharat Aggarwal, “Targeting InflammationInduced Obesity and Metabolic Disease by Curcumin and Other Nutraceuticals,” Annual Review of Nutrition, Vol. 30 (2010): 173–99, doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104755.
187 Garlic . . . helps metabolize fat, increases insulin sensitivity: R. Padiya, T. N. Khatua, P. K. Bagul, et al., “Garlic Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Associated Metabolic Syndromes in Fructose Fed Rats,” Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 8, No. 53 (2011).
187 Garlic . . . lowers blood pressure . . . oxidative stress: M. A. VazquezPrieto, R. E. Gonzalez, N. F. Renna, et al., “Aqueous Garlic Extracts Prevent Ocxidative Stress and Vascular Remodeling in an Experimental Model of Metabolic Syndrome,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 58, No. 11 (2010): 6630–35.
187 cinnamaldehyde . . . can lower blood sugar if you’re insulin resistant: K. Couturier, B. Qin, C. Batandier, et al., “Cinnamon Increases Liver Glycogen in an Animal Model of Insulin Resistance,” Metabolism, Vol. 60, No. 11 (2011): 1590–97.
187 Ginger . . . been shown to lower cholesterol: Bharat Aggarwal, “Targeting Inflammation–Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disease by Curcumin and Other Nutraceutreals,” Annual Review of Nutrition, Vol. 30 (2010): 173–99, doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104755.
188 [Resveratrol] protects against . . . and physical effects of eating too many calories: I. Abete, E. Goyenechea, M. A. Zulet, and J. A. Martinez, “Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Potential Benefit from Specific Nutritional Components,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 21, No. 2 (2011): B1–15.
188 a higher calcium intake prevented fat mass accumulation and accelerated fat loss: Danit Shahar, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Drora Fraser, et al., “Dairy Calcium Intake, Serum Vitamin D, and Successful Weight Loss,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 92, No. 5 (2010), doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29355.
188 calcium and branchedchain amino acids increases lean body mass: Lindsay K. Eller and Raylene A. Reimer, “A High Calcium, Skim Milk Powder Diet Results in a Lower Fat Mass in Male, EnergyRestricted, Obese Rats More Than a Low Calcium, Casein, or Soy Protein Diet,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 140, No. 7 (2010): 1234–41.
188–189 the group that consumed the most calcium lost nearly 10 percent of their body weight: Danit Shahar, Relly Abel, Asher Elhayany, et al., “Does Calcium Intake Enhance Weight Loss Among Overweight Diabetic Patients?” Diabetics Care, Vol. 30, No. 3 (2007): 485–89.
189 Waist circumference and waisttohip ratio also drop with more calcium: C. Roongpisuthipong, R. Kantawan, and W. Roongpisuthipong, “Reduction of Adipose Tissue and Body Weight: Effect of Water Soluble Calcium Hydroxycitrate in Garcinia Atroviridis on the Short Term Treatment of Obese Women in Thailand,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2007): 25–29.
189 adequate calcium intake increased . . . in a year: Nikki C. Bush, Jessica A. Alvarez, Suzanne S. Choquette, et al., “Dietary Calcium Intake Is Associated with Less Gain in IntraAbdominal Adipose Tissue over 1 Year,” Obesity, Vol. 18, No. 11 (2010), doi:10.1038/oby.2010.39.
189 not taking enough calcium can make you gain more fat: M. B. Zemel, “Regulation of Adiposity and Obesity Risk by Dietary Calcium: Mechanisms and Implication,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 21, No. 2 (2002): 146S–51S.
189 calcium deficiency leads to an increased appetite for calciumrich food: Nikki C. Bush, Jessica A. Alvarez, Suzanne S. Choquette, et al., “Dietary Calcium Intake Is Associated with Less Gain in IntraAbdominal Adipose Tissue over 1 Year,” Obesity, Vol. 18, No. 11 (2010), doi:10.1038/oby.2010.39.
189 Calcium has also been found to increase fasting leptin levels: M. H. Wennersberg, A. Smedman, A. M. Turpeinen, et al., “Dairy Products and Metabolic Effects in Overweight Men and Women: Results from a 6Month Intervention Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 90, No. 4 (2009): 960–68.
189 In combination with vitamin D, calcium can increase weight loss: Danit Shahar, Relly Abel, Asher Elhayany, et al., “Does Calcium Intake Enhance Weight Loss Among Overweight Diabetic Patients?” Diabetics Care, Vol. 30, No. 3 (2007): 485–89.
189 women past menopause who took calcium along with vitamin D had less abdominal fat: J. Zhou, L. J. Zhao, P. Watson, et al., “Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: Secondary Analysis for a LargeScale, Placebo Controlled, DoubleBlind, 4Year Longitudinal Clinical Trial,” Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 7, No. 62 (2010): 1–9.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Nine: Diet Toolbox

205 people who weigh themselves weekly are more successful at losing weight: R. Rossini, S. Moscatiello, G. Tarrini, et al., “Effects of CognitiveBehavioral Treatment for Weight Loss in Family Members,” American Dietetics Association, Vol. 111, No. 11 (2011): 1712–19.
208 DIRECT spouse study: R. Golan, D. Schwarzfuchs, M. J. Stampfer, I. Shai, and DIRECT Group, “Halo Effect of a WeightLoss Trial on Spouses: The DIRECTSpouse Study,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 4 (2009): 544–49.
213 without even signaling your brain . . . a satisfying snack: D. P. DiMeglio and R. D. Mattes, “Liquid Versus Solid Carbohydrates: Effects on Food Intake and Body Weight,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 24, No. 6 (2000): 794–800.
213 Monosodium glutamate can even . . . satiety (fullness) in the hypothalamus: M. Hermanussen, A. P. Garcia, M. Sunder, et al., “Obesity, Voracity, and Short Stature: The Impact of Glutamate on the Regulation of Appetite,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 60, No. 1 (2006): 25–31.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_column_text]Chapter Eleven: The 20/10 Exercise Program

239 triple increase in brain cell generation in the hippocampus: C. Ernst, A. K. Olson, J. P. Pinel, et al., “Antidepressant Effect of Exercise: Evidence for an AdultNeurogenesis Hypothesis?” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Vol. 31, No. 2 (2006): 84–92.
239–240 pushing your mitochondria to work better even when you’re not exercising: A. Tremblay, E. Fontaine, E. T. Poehlman, et al., “The Effect of ExerciseTraining on Resting Metabolic Rate in Lean and Moderately Obese Individuals,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 10, No. 6 (1986): 511–17.
240 increases initial weight loss by a massive 20 percent: C. C. Curioni and P. M. Lourenco, “LongTerm Weight Loss After Diet and Exercise: A Systematic Review,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 29, No. 10 (2005): 1168–74.
240 exercise plays a significant role in weight maintenance: Holly Wyatt, “Strategies to Fight Weight Regain,” The Endocrine Society’s 93rd Annual Meeting and Expo, Boston, 4 June 2011.
240 People who exercise in intense spurts . . . and muscle mass: A. M. Sjodin, A. H. Forslund, K. R. Westerterp, et al., “The Influence of Physical Activity on BMR,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 28, No. 1 (1996): 486–44.
240 lean muscle mass . . . resting metabolic rate: D. J. Macfarlane and G. N. Thomas, “Exercise and Diet in Weight Management: Updating What Works,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 16 (20 October 2009): 2–3.
241 practicing relaxation techniques regularly relieves anger, tension, and confusion: Herbert Benson, John F. Beary, Mark P. Carol, “The Relaxation Response,” Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, Vol. 37, No. 1 (1974): 37–46.
241 our lives were too busy for us to exercise: E. M. Inelmen, E. D. Toffanello, G. Enzi, et al., “Predictors of DropOut in Overweight and Obese Outpatients,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2005): 122–28.
241 Physical activity has actually been shown to modulate appetite for the better: J. Bilski, A. Teleglow, J. ZahradnikBilska, et al., “Effects of Exercise on Appetite and Food Intake Regulation,” Medicina Sportiva, Vol. 13, No. 2 (2009): 82–94.
241 able to detect how much you need to eat and adjust its intake at subsequent meals: E. L. Van Walleghen, J. S. Orr, C. L. Gentile, et al., “Habitual Physical Activity Differentially Affects Acute and ShortTerm Energy Intake Regulation in Young and Older Adults,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 31, No. 8 (2007): 1277–85.
241 exercise produce better . . . appetite control: C. Martins, H. Truby, and L. M. Morgan, “ShortTerm Appetite Control in Response to a 6Week Exercise Programme in Sedentary Volunteers,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 98, No. 4 (2007): 834–42.
242 highintensity interval training (HIIT) is effective for fat reduction: Stephen H. Boutcher, “HighIntensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 868305 (2011): 10 pages.
242 HIIT makes you burn more calories . . . production of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4): D. J. Macfarlane and G. N. Thomas, “Exercise and Diet in Weight Management: Updating What Works,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 16 (20 October 2009): 2–3.
242 Levels of catecholamines . . . rise immediately after highintensity exercise: M. RebuffeScrive, B. Andersson, L. Olbe, and P. Bjorntorp, “Metabolism of Adipose Tissue in Intraabdominal Depots of Nonobese Men and Women,” Metabolism, Vol. 38, No. 5 (1989): 453–58.
242 Levels of catecholamines . . . rise immediately after highintensity exercise: Stephen H. Boutcher, “HighIntensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 868305 (2011), doi: 10.1155/2011/868305.
242 release it into the bloodstream for further breakdown: B. Issekutz Jr., “Role of BetaAdrenergic Receptors in Mobilization of Energy Sources in Exercising Dogs,” Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology, Vol. 44, No. 6 (1978): 869–76.
242 ability to break down both subcutaneous fat and fat found in muscles: M. E. Nevill, D. J. Holmyard, G. M. Hall, et al., “Growth Hormone Responses to Treadmill Sprinting in Sprintand EnduranceTrained Athletes,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, Vol. 72, Nos. 5–6 (1996): 460–67.
242 burn more fat around your waist and in your abdomen: E. G. Trapp, D. J. Chisholm, and S. H. Boutcher, “Metabolic Response of Trained and Untrained Women During HighIntensity Intermittent Cycle Exercise,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 293, No. 6 (2007): R2370–75.
243 GH concentration was ten times higher in the highintensity group: M. E. Nevill, D. J. Holmyard, G. M. Hall, et al., “Growth Hormone Responses to Treadmill Sprinting in Sprintand EnduranceTrained Athletes,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, Vol. 72, Nos. 5–6 (1996): 460–67.
243 Fat burning . . . (ten minutes for trained athletic women): E. G. Trapp, D. J. Chisholm, and S. H. Boutcher, “Metabolic Response of Trained and Untrained Women During HighIntensity Intermittent Cycle Exercise,” American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 293, No. 6 (2007): R2370–75.
243 people who did HIIT lost more subcutaneous fat: A. Tremblay, J.A. Simoneau, and C. Bouchard, “Impact of Exercise Intensity on Body Fatness and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism,” Metabolism, Vol. 43, No. 7 (1994): 814–18.
243 insulin sensitivity increased anywhere from 19 to 58 percent: Stephen H. Boutcher, “HighIntensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 868305 (2011): 1, 5.
244 HIIT for just eight weeks decreased their abdominal fat by nearly 50 percent: P. Boudou, E. Sobngwi, F. MauvaisJarvis, et al., “Absence of ExerciseInduced Variations in Adiponectin Levels Despite Decreased Abdominal Adiposity and Improved Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Men,” European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 149, No. 5 (2003): 421–24.
244 using its energy stores (fat) more efficiently within seven weeks after you start HIIT: J. D. Macdougall, A. L. Hicks, et al., “Muscle Performance and Enzymatic Adaptations to Sprint Interval Training,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 84, No. 6 (1998): 2138–42.
244 In as little as two weeks, your muscle oxidative capacity can significantly increase: Stephen H. Boutcher, “HighIntensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss,” Journal of Obesity, Vol. 2011, article ID 868305 (2011): 1, 5.
244 Strength training . . . has been shown to significantly increase total calorie burn: G. R. Hunter, C. J. Wetzstein, D. A. Fields, et al., “Resistance Training Increases Total Energy Expenditure and FreeLiving Physical Activity in Older Adults,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 89, No. 3 (2000): 977–84.
248 Adult women who lost . . . after losing weight soon gain it back: J. M. Jakicic, B. H. Marcus, W. Lang, and C. Janney, “Effect of Exercise on 24Month Weight Loss Maintenance in Overweight Women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 168, No. 14 (2008): 1550–59.
248–249 highest rate of fat burn . . . of your maximum heart rate: J. Achten, M. Gleeson, and A. E. Jeukendrup, “Determination of the Exercise Intensity That Elicits Maximal Fat Oxidation,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercercise, Vol. 34, No. 1 (2002): 92–97.
250 savings of $311,755: K. M. Baker, R. Z. Goetzel, X. Pei, et al., “Using a ReturnonInvestment Estimation Model to Evaluate Outcomes from an Obesity Management Worksite Health Promotion Program,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 9 (2008): 981–90.
250 Water is fifteen times more resistant . . . if you have arthritis: J. BrandMiller, K. FosterPowell, and J. McMillanPrice, The Low GI Diet Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2005).
283 women who biked five minutes a day or less experienced less weight gain: A. C. Lusk, R. A. Mekary, and D. Feskanich, “Bicycle Riding, Walking, and Weight Gain in Premenopausal Women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 170, No. 12 (2010): 1050–56.
284 study done on nearly 1,000 adult men: A. Wagner, C. Simon, P. Ducimetiere, et al., “LeisureTime Physical Activity and Regular Walking or Cycling to Work Are Associated with Adiposity and 5 Year Weight Gain in MiddleAged Men: The PRIME Study,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 25, No.7 (2001): 940–48.

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